القصية الترقوية الخشائية (SCM) is a combined shallow muscle in the foremost bit of the neck. العضلة القصية الترقوية الخشائية (SCM) is an essential point of interest in the neck which partitions it into a foremost and a back triangle. This muscle ties the skull to the sternum and clavicle. It secures the vertical neurovascular heap of the neck, branches of cervical plexus, profound cervical lymph hubs and delicate tissues of the neck from harm.
Sternocleidomastoid Origin and Insertion
It emerges by two heads:
- An average adjusted and tendinous sternal head (SH).
- A horizontal meaty clavicular head (CH).
They emerge from the anterolateral surface of the manubrium sterni and the average third of the unrivaled surface of the clavicle, individually. The thickness of the CH is variable. The two heads are isolated by a triangular surface discouragement, the lesser supraclavicular fossa. As they rise, the CH spirals behind the SH and mixes with its profound surface underneath the center of the neck, shaping a thick adjusted gut. The surface of the mastoid procedure through a solid ligament and the horizontal portion of the predominant line through an aponeurosis.
Sternocleidomastoid Functions and Actions
Rotation of the head to the alternative side or obliquely rotate the pinnacle. It also flexes the neck. While performing together it flexes the neck and extends the head. When acting by me it rotates to the alternative aspect and barely flexes to the same facet. It additionally acts as an accent muscle concept.
The SCM’s major responsibility is transferring the vertebral column and head. Consider my little trouble? Do what I am doing right now: area your cheek and jaw into your hand so that you’re conserving the weight of your head. Besides having horrible posture, you are also flexing your neck laterally or drawing the top to the shoulder of the identical facet. It’s the identical movement whilst a canine tilts its head interestingly after listening to a new noise (my dog did this all of the time as a puppy, and it becomes unbearably lovable).
Rotating your head to one aspect (contralateral head rotation) additionally involves the SCM, as does increase your ribs. While you’re taking a deep breath in, your SCM allows bringing up your thoracic cage and clavicles, developing a bigger area for the lungs to increase.
Variations of Sternocleidomastoid
The SCM is a unique muscle, in phrases of versions at its foundation. 4, 5, و 6 بالإضافة إلى; it has a variable innervations arrangement, the “classical anastomotic sample “being determined in 50 % of the cases. This anatomical info has a pivotal role in the making plans of pedicle muscle flaps in reconstructive surgical procedures.
In many animals, the cleidomastoid belly is fantastically cut loose the stern mastoid stomach. This condition while found in people is taken into consideration to be a version from ordinary. ال 2 separate stern mastoid and cleidomastoid bellies further subdivide the anterior triangle into a supernumerary triangle. The occurrence of one of these versions may be defined via fusion failure or strange mesodermal splitting for the duration of development. In this regard, we may also confer with Shinohara’s regulation of fusion which states that a muscle supplied through one of kind nerves is fashioned through the fusion of separate muscle masses.
A few studies have indicated a supernumerary cleido-occipital muscle extra or much less break free the sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle. The recurrence of cleido-occipital muscle event has been articulated as much as 33%.
بعض الأحيان, the SCM fuses with the trapezius, leaving no posterior triangle. The sort of phenomenon describes Sinohara’s regulation of separation which states that two muscle groups having commonplace nerve supply are derived from a commonplace muscle mass8. A few authors regard such fusions to be an ordinary developmental feature, because of their not unusual derivation from submit- sixth branchial arch.